The answer is yes. If you do not have a Bitmoji account linked to your Snapchat Map you can still use the map and share your location. When you share your location, there will be a Bitmoji that is filled with a color like blue, orange or purple.
This is what the unlinked Bitmoji account that shares a location on Snapchat looks like:
What other colors have you seen for users that have not linked their Bitmoji? If you do not have a Bitmoji linked, has the Snapchat map caused you to make one or think about making one?